PTSD: Collateral Damage from the War Zones
Glenn Ellis | 6/1/2016, 6:56 p.m.
It has become trendy for media reports to compare neighborhoods plagued by gun violence to war zones.
It's time for us to take a "grownup" look at the violence that plagues all of our
lives and our communities.
Violence claims two victims, the person or people victimized and the community,
which experiences trauma, fear, and stress. Each year in the United States, millions
of residents fall victim to violent crime, which also causes fear and stress to
neighbors, children, businesspeople, and other community members.
The chances that young men who experience trauma in their neighborhood will end
up in jail are astronomically high, studies show. Studies have also shown a high
correlation between neighborhood disorder and physical abuse.
According to the National Association for Mental Illness, some 70 percent of youths
in state and local juvenile justice facilities suffer from mental health problems
- part of a broader trend of prisons and jails becoming warehouses for the mentally
ill. These youths are in many cases cut off from mental health care and from their
communities and families; an untold number will be released back into society as
hardened, unstable adults.
Aggravating the crisis in communities, state mental health programs lost more than
$4 billion in funding from fiscal year 2009 to 2012 - a cost passed down to the
hospitals and courtrooms that ultimately must absorb the burden.
Studies show that, overall, about 8 percent of Americans suffer from PTSD at some
point in their lives. But the rates appear to be much higher in communities - such
as poor, largely African American pockets of Detroit, Atlanta, Chicago, and
- where high rates of violent crime have persisted despite a national decline.
A growing number of programs treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war
veterans. But far fewer treat Americans who suffer from the PTSD that comes with
their zip code. And this kind of PTSD may be affecting even more people.
PTSD can directly hurt a person's brain by messing with the amygdala -- the part
of the brain that triggers a chemical to release to help you decide between "fight
or flight" in a threatening situation. If someone is exposed to prolonged, repetitive,
or extreme trauma, the amygdala stays in alert mode. And the neurons, the pathways
to this part of the brain, lose their ability to recover.
A person's memory becomes corrupted like a bad computer hard drive and it can hurt
a person's ability to separate out new experiences and determine whether they are
safe or dangerous. The longer a person stays in the hyper-vigilant mode, the greater
the chance of permanent damage. In a child, damage can be magnified and lead to
problems like dissociative identity disorder.
For most people, untreated PTSD will not lead to violence. But "there's a subgroup
of people who are at risk, in the wrong place, at the wrong time, of reacting in
a violent way or an aggressive way, that they might not have if they had had their